Sympathetics / Parasympathetics
Summary and Support
- A review of studies which examine the relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems indicates the following:
- Multiple interactions which transpire between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are mediated via mechanisms and pathways at peripheral as well as central levels of the neuraxis.
- Peripheral interactions are based on the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways’ morphological-functional organization. These are at the levels of neuroeffector connections and the sympathetic prevertebral ganglia.
- Findings imply that neuroeffector connections might be realized at the postsynaptic, post-receptor, presynaptic and axo-axonal levels.
- Additionally, interactions inside the central nervous system are predominantly mediated by neurons inside the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the solitary tract’s nucleus.
- Various disorders such as psychiatric, neurological, inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases may be induced by unbalanced autonomic activities which stem from changes in the interactions between the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous systems.