From OptimalScience

Mindfulness is a core concept of Optimal Work and the second of the three primary steps that bring somebody into full engagement with a task. Mindfulness is very simply defined as the ability to hold one’s attention in the present moment.

Mindful Attention[edit]

According to the model of OptimalWork, successfully reframing a task takes one out of limbic attention and into mindful attention. In limbic attention, one is caught in a misplaced "fight or flight" mode, with the brain's executive function attenuated and the mind reactive and distractible. In mindful attention, on the other hand, the limbic system is turned down in favor of the more deliberate functions of the brain. When mindful, the brain carries out executive tasks more effectively and is less responsive to distracting auditory, visual, and mental cues.

The Neuroscience of Mindful Attention[edit]

Mindfulness and Work[edit]

The Technique of Mindfulness[edit]

Long-Term Brain Changes[edit]

Preliminary Literature[edit]



















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  11. Alsubaie M, Abbott R, Dunn B, Dickens C, Keil TF, Henley W, Kuyken W. Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in people with physical and/or psychological conditions: A systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2017 Jul;55:74-91. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.04.008. Epub 2017 Apr 23. PMID: 28501707.
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  14. Blanck P, Perleth S, Heidenreich T, Kröger P, Ditzen B, Bents H, Mander J. Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Behav Res Ther. 2018 Mar;102:25-35. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.12.002. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 29291584.
  15. Vignaud P, Donde C, Sadki T, Poulet E, Brunelin J. Neural effects of mindfulness-based interventions on patients with major depressive disorder: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 May;88:98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.004. Epub 2018 Mar 13. PMID: 29548932.
  16. Nascimento SS, Oliveira LR, DeSantana JM. Correlations between brain changes and pain management after cognitive and meditative therapies: A systematic review of neuroimaging studies. Complement Ther Med. 2018 Aug;39:137-145. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.06.006. Epub 2018 Jun 19. PMID: 30012384.
  17. Parmentier FBR, García-Toro M, García-Campayo J, Yañez AM, Andrés P, Gili M. Mindfulness and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in the General Population: The Mediating Roles of Worry, Rumination, Reappraisal and Suppression. Front Psychol. 2019 Mar 8;10:506. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00506. PMID: 30906276; PMCID: PMC6418017.

This article has great references for recent literature on mindfulness, reframing (reappraisal), rumination and worry. Total support. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418017/

An important study from 2013: Desrosiers A., Vine V., Klemanski D. H., Nolen-Hoeksema S. (2013). Mindfulness and emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: common and distinct mechanisms of action. Depress. Anxiety 30 654–661. 10.1002/da.22124 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012253/

Also: Burg J. M., Michalak J. (2011). The healthy quality of mindful breathing: Associations with rumination and depression. Cogn. Ther. Res. 35 179–185. 10.1007/s10608-010-9343-x https://idp.springer.com/authorize/casa?redirect_uri=https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10608-010-9343-x.pdf&casa_token=FPU_VUoowGwAAAAA:OmyRHtDmP4n0-m5-APlFOWgLH7snvEFbiCOp6RR9K0h7p0r5L_E0CUlwMQakVqcmNQMl5ErGaocRHno

Coffey K. A., Hartman M., Fredrickson B. L. (2010). Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness 1 235–253. 10.1007/s12671-010-0033-2 https://idp.springer.com/authorize/casa?redirect_uri=https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12671-010-0033-2.pdf&casa_token=pjR48-uxiQ4AAAAA:sksAbk4SsTu_ChxLqdF7uRUkEsZVx9YDsrTLR93K-B-jk-aUCwFXtAb_10YR61tP9gliNoJQigZ0cpw https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012253/